Scientific Research: Education
More than 200,000 students in public and private schools around the world are practising the Transcendental Meditation technique as part of school-supported Quiet Time programs. Below: Liberty School, Kenya.
Anxiety and depression are reduced and thinking becomes more balanced, positive, and progressive.
Transcendental Meditation is easy to learn and enjoyable to practise, requiring no effort, concentration or special skills. Young people enjoy growing in greater balance, focus and harmony.
Any child can learn it—including children from the age of 5 years.
Every child faces stressful situations from time to time – fears, conflicts, anger, frustration, anxiety and depression. It’s all part of growing up. No matter what age, our children look to us, as parents, for guidance and advice.
Yet, we don’t always have the answers. What we can be certain of though, is that we want the best for our children.
Transcendental Meditation for children is a simple and natural technique that increases happiness, self-esteem, calmness and creativity. It also provides children and teenagers with a means to cope with stress, anxiety and depression.
Children say they feel more settled and find it is easier to focus in school. Parents say it helps their children to better understand themselves, as a result of which they are able to deal with their emotions and get along more harmoniously with their family, friends, siblings and teachers.
Transcendental Meditation improves life and reduces stress in children and teenagersTranscendental Meditation is a natural process that allows the mind and body to settle down to experience a unique state of deep rest—different from sleep, drowsiness, or ordinary relaxation – in which the body is deeply rested and the mind is fully alert.
Extensive scientific research has shown that this special type of rest reduces the effects of stress and prevents stress from accumulating over time.
Regular practice of Transcendental Meditation provides help for children of all ages:
• more happiness (decreases depression)
• less stress
• calmer emotions and sense of being more in control
• more patience in dealings with others
• less anxious when revising and taking exams
• enhanced creativity and imagination
• improved brain functioning
• improved memory, better concentration and greater ability to learn
• greater maturity, self-esteem and self-confidence
• improved sleep
• improved health and well-being
• improved mind-body coordination
• less tendency towards smoking, alcohol consumption and drug abuse
|Over 600 scientific studies have documented the benefits of the educational technology of Consciousness-Based Education—the Transcendental Meditation Program—for mental potential, health, social behaviour, and the environment. This research has been conducted at more than 200 universities and research institutes in 30 countries.These papers have been published in over 100 peer-reviewed journals.The following are research findings on the Transcendental Meditation Program that are particularly significant for the educational process. The numbers in parentheses after the finding refer to the references of the original research papers, which are listed at the end of this document.Increased Intelligence, Learning Ability, and Intellectual Performance* Increased Intelligence (1–7)|
* Increased Learning Ability (8–9)
* Improved Memory (9–10)
* Accelerated Cognitive Development in Children (11–13)
* Improved Cognitive Flexibility (9–10)
* Increased Efficiency of Concept Learning (8)
* Faster Processing of Cognitively Complex Information (14)
* Broader Comprehension and Improved Ability to Focus Attention—Increased Field Independence (4, 13, 15)
* Cognitive Orientation towards Positive Values (16)
* Improved Problem-Solving Ability (2)
Improved Academic Performance and Academic Orientation
* Improved Academic Performance at the Elementary, Secondary, College, and Postgraduate Levels (17–20)
* Improved Standardized Test Scores on General Academic Achievement, Social Studies, Literary Materials, Reading, Mathematics, Language, and Work Study Skills (17–18)
* Enhanced Creativity (2, 5, 21)
* Increased Innovation (2)
Higher Levels of Brain Functioning
* Mobilization of the Hidden Reserves of the Brain: Wider Distribution of the Brain’s Response to Sensory Input (22)
* Increased Neurological Efficiency:
—Increased Efficiency of Information Transfer in the Brain (14, 23–28)
—Improved Spinal Reflex Activity (29, 30)
—Improvements in Reaction-Time Measures Correlated with Intelligence (7)
* Greater Adaptability of Brain Functioning (31)
* Faster Processing of Cognitively Complex Information in the Elderly (9)
* Increased Efficiency and Decreased Age-Related Deterioration of Cognitive Information Processing as Measured by Event-Related Potentials (14)
* Correlations Found in Subjects Practising the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Programme:
—Between High EEG Coherence, Higher States of Consciousness, and High Levels of Creativity (32)
—Between High EEG Coherence, Neurological Efficiency, and Flexibility of Concept Learning (8)
—Between High EEG Coherence, High Levels of Principled Moral Reasoning, and a Unified Cosmic Perspective on Life (33)
Improved Mind-Body Coordination
* Faster Reactions (34–36)
* Increased Psychomotor Speed (37)
Increased Organizational Ability and Efficiency
* Increased Time Competence: Increased Ability to Think and Act Efficiently in the Present (38–40)
* Increased Efficiency and Productivity (41, 42)
* Increased Employee Effectiveness (42)
* Decreased Tendency to Procrastinate (43)
Increased Energy and Dynamism
* Increased Energy and Enthusiasm (2, 42, 44)
* Increased Physical and Mental Well-Being (9, 45–47)
* Decreased Fatigue (42)
* Lower Health Insurance Utilization Rates: Significantly Fewer Hospital Inpatient Days, and Outpatient Visits in All Age Categories; Fewer Inpatient Admissions for All Major Categories of Disease (47)
* Longitudinal Reduction in Health Care Costs (48)
* Improved Self-Health Rating (9, 42, 45, 46, 49) Increased Integration of Personality* Increased Self-Actualization: Increased Integration, Unity, and Wholeness of Personality (38–40)* Uniquely Effective Means of Increasing Self-Actualization (40)* Uniquely High Scores on Self-Development in Advanced Participants in Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation Programme (50)* Orientation towards Positive Values: Better Recall for Positive than Negative Words; Lower Recognition Thresholds for Positive Words than Negative Words; More Positive Appraisal of Others (16)
* Increased Inner-Directedness: Greater Independence and Self-Supportiveness (38–40)
* Increased Autonomy and Independence (2, 40, 50)
* Less Sensitivity to Criticism (51)
* Enhanced Self-Concept (52)
* Enhanced Self-Regard and Self-Esteem (2, 51, 53, 54)
* Enhanced Inner Well-Being (9)
* Increased Emotional Stability (43, 55, 56)
* Increased Emotional Maturity (44)
* Decreased Behavioural Rigidity (9)
* Improved Mental Health (9, 38–40, 42–46, 51, 52, 54, 55, 57–64)
Reduction in Negative Personality Characteristics
* Decreased Anxiety (2, 42, 44, 54, 55, 57, 58, 60, 62, 65)
* Decreased Tension (42, 43, 58)
* Decreased Neuroticism (43, 45, 51, 59, 62)
* Decreased Depression (43, 51, 55)
* Decreased Hostility (60, 71)
* Decreased Impulsiveness (44, 45)
* Decreased Use of Cigarettes (42, 66–70)
* Decreased Use of Alcohol (42, 55, 61, 66–69, 72)
* Decreased Drug Abuse (43, 66–69, 73)
Growth of Ideal Social Behaviour
* Increased Social Maturity (3)
* Increased Sociability (44)
* Increased Capacity for Warm Interpersonal Relationships (39, 43, 44)
* Increased Friendliness (43)
* Improved Work and Personal Relationships (42)
* Increased Ability to Be Objective, Fair-Minded, and Reasonable (44)
* Increased Good Humour (43)
* Increased Trust (51)
* Increased Tolerance (2, 44)
* Growth of a More Sympathetic, Helpful, and Caring Nature (44)
* Increased Sensitivity to the Feelings of Others (44)
* Improved Interpersonal Behaviour of Juvenile Offenders (54)
Benefits in Special Education and Remedial Education
* Improvements in Personality Relevant to Learning Disorders in Economically Deprived Adolescents with Learning Problems (53):
—Increased Independence and Self-Supportiveness
* Decreased Dropout Rate from School in Economically Deprived Adolescents with Learning Problems (53)
* Improvements Among Children from Low-Income Families (74)
* Improvements in Autism: Decreased Echolalic Behaviour (75)
* Benefits for Mentally Retarded Subjects:
—Improved Social Behaviour (76)
—Improved Cognitive Functioning (76, 77)
—Increased Intelligence (76, 77)
—Improved Physical Health (76)
—Normalization of Neurotransmitter Metabolite and Plasma Cortisol Levels (77)
* Decreased Stuttering (78, 79)
2. DESCRIPTION OF SELECTED STUDIES
The following sample studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation Program and its applicability to a wide variety of educational settings.
Development of intelligence—Increased IQ among university students. University students who regularly practised the Transcendental Meditation Program increased significantly in intelligence and in the ability to make rapid choice decisions compared to control subjects from another nearby university (7). This finding corroborates other studies showing increased IQ and faster choice reaction through practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique.
Increased intelligence and reduced anxiety among high school students. Four secondary schools in Ontario, Canada participated in a study of longitudinal change in high school students practising the Transcendental Meditation Program (2). After a 14-week period, students practising the Transcendental Meditation Program improved significantly in intelligence, creativity, and seven personality factors, in comparison to randomly assigned controls.
Improved academic achievement, cognitive abilities, creativity, and self-esteem. Research in primary and secondary schools has shown that the practice of the Transcendental Meditation Program by elementary and secondary students significantly improves academic achievement on national standardized tests (17, 18); develops cognitive abilities (12); and improves field independence, an indicator of broad comprehension and the ability to focus sharply (13).
Longitudinal research at the post-secondary level has also found development of intellectual ability, creativity, field independence, academic achievement, and self-esteem (3, 4, 7, 15, 19–21); improved self development to uniquely high levels (50); and increased self-actualization (38–40).
Reduced substance abuse. Numerous studies with high school students, college students, and adults have shown reduction in substance abuse and antisocial behaviour. A recent special issue of the journal Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly (80) is devoted entirely to the effects of the Transcendental Meditation Technique in reducing substance abuse. The research findings show reduction in usage of all classes of illegal drugs, as well as of alcohol, cigarettes, and prescribed drugs.
3. BENEFITS FOR TEACHERS AND ADMINISTRATORS
The research on the Transcendental Meditation Program indicates that the benefits for the individual are comprehensive. Findings especially relevant to faculty and administrator development include improved health and reduction of stress; greater inner stability and resistance to stress; and increased creativity, personal satisfaction, and self-actualization.
Improved health and decreased teacher stress. Research on the Transcendental Meditation Program has found long-term reductions on biochemical and general physiological indicators of stress (77, 81) and ageing (9, 82). In addition, two well-controlled studies demonstrating reductions in hypertension among the elderly (9, 83) substantiate the findings of fourteen earlier studies on hypertension, a major risk factor in heart disease.
Especially promising for reducing health care costs in schools and universities are the results of a field study of insurance statistics of 2000 Transcendental Meditation Program participants over a five-year period (47). The Transcendental Meditation group showed a 50% reduction in both inpatient and outpatient medical care utilization, as compared to matched controls, as well as lower sickness rates in 17 categories of disease, including 87% less hospitalization for heart disease; 87% less for nervous system disorders; 73% less for nose, throat and lung disorders; and 55% less for tumours.
Recent longitudinal research in Canada demonstrated an average reduction of 7% per year in health care costs among those who learned the Transcendental Meditation Technique, in comparison to matched controls and controlling for inflation (48).
Developing inner stability and resistance to stress. Teachers need to be able to maintain focus on their objectives, while adapting to continually changing demands in the classroom. The research on the Transcendental Meditation Program indicating increased physiological stability and field independence is thus highly relevant to effective teaching. Studies examining galvanic skin responses, which measure physiological excitation, found that the Transcendental Meditation Technique enables more rapid mobilization of one’s physiological resources, while at the same time facilitating quicker recovery to baseline levels of functioning (81). Similarly, studies of field independence, a measure of the ability to maintain internal stability in a distracting environment, have found significant improvements among those who learn the Transcendental Meditation Programme (15).
Increasing teacher creativity, personal satisfaction and self-actualization. Educational research has found that in schools perceived as effective the teachers are satisfied with their careers and teaching circumstances (84). Other research indicates that a major factor contributing to teacher dissatisfaction is the sense of stagnation which occurs after the strategies that the teacher has learned in the past begin to become obstacles to growth and personal progress.
An analysis of research studies found the Transcendental Meditation Program to be uniquely effective in promoting self-actualization (40). Other research shows longitudinal increases in figural and verbal creativity (2, 21) and physiological, cognitive and behavioural flexibility (9, 10, 14, 27). The growth of these qualities supports the ability to avoid stagnation in the teaching profession, to continue to develop new and more effective teaching strategies, and to enjoy increasing fulfilment in teaching on the basis of expanding creativity.
Results relating to effective administration and organization. The Transcendental Meditation Program has been adopted in hundreds of businesses. It is viewed by managers as a means of developing the human resources of business, and also as a means of increasing the efficiency and productivity of the company. Many of these benefits apply equally to administration of an educational institution.
One study in a business setting, utilizing both self-report questionnaires and evaluations of co-worker and supervisors, found significantly improved job satisfaction, enhanced job performance, and better relations with peers and supervisors, as well as decreased turnover potential among people practising Transcendental Meditation, as compared to non-meditating controls (41).
A recent three-month study in two occupational settings, which compared managers and employees who learned the Transcendental Meditation Program to demographically similar controls, found that participants in the Transcendental Meditation Program showed significant decreases, as compared to controls, in trait anxiety, state anxiety, job worry, and cigarette and alcohol use. They also showed increased job satisfaction, improved general health, greater efficiency and productivity, and better work and personal relationships (42).
A large-scale study by researchers at the National Institute of Industrial Health of the Japanese Ministry of Labour found that workers at Sumitomo Heavy Industries showed improved physical and mental health after learning the Transcendental Meditation Program, in comparison to matched controls (45, 46)
In addition to the increases in employee satisfaction, the cost savings due to reduced illness and health care utilization by people practising Transcendental Meditation, as described above, are sufficient to warrant the inclusion of this technology in any administrator or teacher development programme.
4. BENEFITS FOR SOCIETY
Almost fifty research studies verify that when large groups of individuals practise Transcendental Meditation or participate together in the group practice of the advanced TM-Sidhi Program, including Yogic Flying, then an influence of coherence and harmony is radiated from the group to the whole society. This increased coherence and harmony in society is measured by such trends as reduced crime (85–89), reduced accidents (90), improved overall quality of life (87, 88, 91–93), improved economic trends (88, 94, 95), and reduced conflict and violence (87, 96, 97). When all students and faculty at a large school or university learn the TM-Sidhi Program, their group practice creates a beneficial influence for the whole city, and if the group is large enough, for the state and nation.
5. DESCRIPTION OF TRANSCENDENTAL MEDITATION
With reference to scientific research findings
Over the last five decades, the Transcendental Meditation Program has been learned by more than five million people worldwide, of all ages, nationalities, and religions. Transcendental Meditation is a simple, natural, effortless technique that settles the mind to increasingly silent and orderly levels of awareness, allowing one to naturally experience the most silent, expanded state of one’s own consciousness, Transcendental Consciousness, the full creative potential of the mind.
As the mind becomes more settled and wide awake during this technique, the body correspondingly gains a unique physiological state of restful alertness, which releases accumulated stress and increases the stability and flexibility of the nervous system. (98)
This unique state of restful alertness produces a broad range of benefits as one continues to practise the technique. These benefits are reflected in the increasing ability of individuals to express their full creative potential, and to achieve success in whatever they undertake without damaging the interests of others.
Unique effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation Program: Results of meta-analyses
The most powerful and rigorous method for drawing conclusions from a large body of scientific research is the statistical procedure of meta-analysis. Four such meta-analyses have been conducted on the effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program in comparison to other techniques.
The results are as follows:
(1) Physiological rest. A meta-analysis published in American Psychologist reviewed 31 studies, and found that Transcendental Meditation produces more than twice the degree of physiological rest than is produced by simply sitting with eyes closed. (98)
(2) Reduced trait anxiety. A meta-analysis published in the Journal of Clinical Psychology reviewed over 100 research findings, and found Transcendental Meditation to produce more than twice the reduction in trait anxiety (i.e., chronic stress) than produced by any other technique. (65)
(3) Increased self-actualization. A meta-analysis published in the Journal of Social Behavior and Personality showed Transcendental Meditation to increase self-actualization by three times as large an effect as that of other techniques. (40)
(4) Reduced substance abuse. Another meta-analysis, published in Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, showed the practice of Transcendental Meditation to result in a greater degree of reduction and more lasting reduction in consumption of alcohol, drugs, and cigarettes than other techniques or preventive education programs. (69)
6. ACHIEVEMENTS OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IMPLEMENTING CONSCIOUSNESS-BASED EDUCATION—UNITED STATES, UNITED KINGDOM, INDIA, SOUTH AFRICA
The research findings described above are reflected in the achievements of the students of schools worldwide that apply Maharishi’s Consciousness-Based Education. Decades of experience have shown that any school or university whose teachers and students regularly practise Transcendental Meditation enjoys the same beneficial results: the flowering of its students’ potential, increasingly creative and effective teaching, improved quality of student life, and a harmonious and positive atmosphere.
Below are reports on research studies and educational outcomes at the primary and secondary level of education from the Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment in Fairfield, Iowa, U.S.A.; from the Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment in Lancashire, England; from Maharishi Vidya Mandir School in Chennai, India; from schools in Alexandra, South Africa; and at the university level, from Maharishi University of Management, Fairfield, Iowa, U.S.A.
Maharishi School in Fairfield, Iowa, U.S.A.—Recent Achievements
Maharishi School in Iowa (K–12) was founded in 1974, and currently has over 600 students from a wide range of socioeconomic backgrounds. As in all schools that implement Maharishi’s Consciousness-Based Education, its unique addition to the traditional curriculum is the systematic development of the students’ consciousness through a course that includes the practice of Transcendental Meditation twice daily during school time. Children under age 10 practise the Word of Wisdom technique, as taught by Maharishi. This simple technique, practised for a few minutes twice daily, is suitable for the active nature of young children.
The School has a liberal admissions policy, and the entering scores of the students are average. The extraordinary achievements of the students as they progress through this system of education are therefore particularly impressive.
Overall Academic Achievement:
• Upper School classes (Grades 9 to 12) consistently score in the 99th percentile in the nation on standardized national tests of academic achievement. This result is particularly notable in light of the fact that when first admitted to the school, the students as a whole score at around the fiftieth percentile (average). No other school in the United States produces this great a change in its student body as a whole.
• Over the past seven years, 95% of the graduates of Maharishi School have continued with higher education, attending 4-year colleges and universities.
Science and Mathematics Achievements:
• In the state science and engineering fairs, Maharishi School students have won one or more first prizes in the past eight years. In 1993 alone 53 awards were won by Maharishi School students.
• In 1996 Maharishi School ranked first in Iowa Class 1A in the American School Mathematics Examination, and in 1997, 1998, and 1999, first in Iowa in Class 2A. In both 1997 and 1998 a Maharishi School 8th grade student scored highest in the state of Iowa on the American Junior High School Mathematics Examination.
• In 1998 and three previous years, teams from the 7th and 8th grades won first place in a state problem-solving competition, the ‘Iowa Odyssey of the Mind’ competition, qualifying the School to represent Iowa at the World Finals. One team then finished 6th in the world at the World Finals.
• In the 1998 Iowa High School Speech Association All-State Festival, Maharishi School was awarded the Sweepstakes trophy for the school with the highest number of outstanding performances of the festival.
• In 1998, Maharishi School won all three of the first-place prizes at the Iowa State History Fair; they also won first places in this fair in 1995 and 1996.
• In both 1997 and 1998, Maharishi School 7th and 8th grades won the Iowa State Spelling Bee (spelling contest).
• Maharishi School students have also won other top state awards in writing, photography, chess, mathematics, poetry, media, and computer programming.
• In 1995, 1996, and 1997, a Maharishi School students won the state Class 1-A singles and doubles tennis championships.
• In 1996 Maharishi School won the state team golf championship, and a Maharishi School student won the individual state championship.
• In 1995 Maharishi School athletes, coaches, and fans received the highest sportsmanship ratings in the State.
Maharishi School in Lancashire, U.K.—Recent Achievements
Maharishi School in Lancashire has 100 elementary and secondary students. Objective measures of the school’s creative and intellectual achievements include the following:
Overall Academic Achievement:
• In 1997, 1996, and 1995 the performance of Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment on the national examinations of the Department for Education and Employment ranks the Maharishi School academically in the top 2.5 % of all schools in the nation. This includes both selective and non-selective schools, which makes the achievement even more impressive. This School ranks number one among the thousands of schools in Lancashire County.
• In the General Certificate of Secondary Education national examination, 100% of students at Maharishi School passed the examination in 1997, 1996, and 1995 in five or more subjects at the top three grading levels (C, B, and A), in contrast to the nation-wide percentage of 43% to 46% for students achieving this standard.
• Among the 13 winners of the Young National Poetry Competition of 1998, 4 winners were from Maharishi School, and were awarded their prizes in a ceremony at Royal Festival Hall in London.
• In 1998, 1997, 1996, and 1995, on 15 occasions Maharishi School students have won the national Times Educational Supplement Young Poet of the Week competition. Only one other school has won this competition more than twice.
• Other national poetry awards were conferred on both the Maharishi School as a whole and individual students in 1998, 1997, 1996, and 1994.
Maharishi Vidya Mandir School, Chennai India—Evaluation Results
More than 200 Maharishi Vidya Mandir Schools have been established throughout India, with over 60,000 students. In the state of Tamil Nadu children from many schools, including Maharishi Vidya Mandir School in Chennai, were given the Indian Child Intelligence Test as part of a research project conducted by the Indian Council for Child Welfare. The results showed that Maharishi Vidya Mandir School students scored higher than the norm (mean of all schools) on each of the 9 subtests of this intelligence test. These results are notable especially in light of the open admissions policy of the Maharishi Vidya Mandir Schools.
Primary and Secondary Schools in South Africa—Evaluation Results
The practice of the Transcendental Meditation Program was introduced to 1300 students in 1997, and an additional 4000 students in 1998, in four primary schools and a secondary school in a high poverty area near Johannesburg, South Africa, with the following results:
• Pass rates increased in every school, and in every grade (standard) of each school; an estimated 700 more students passed in 1997, and 980 additional students passed in 1998.
• In the first year after students began Transcendental Meditation, pass rates increased an average of 18%. For the schools participating in the Program longer than one year, pass rates increased even further.
• Daily statistics collected over a seven-month period at the secondary school indicated a decrease in student and teacher absenteeism by more than 90% after the introduction of the Program.
Maharishi University of Management in Fairfield, Iowa, U.S.A.—Recent Achievements
Maharishi University of Management, founded in 1971, offers Bachelor, Master, and Ph.D. degree Programs; it is accredited at the doctoral level by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools, the largest and oldest educational accrediting organization in the United States.
Scientifically Validated Holistic Development:
Scientific research studies show that Maharishi University of Management (MUM) students display unique and holistic development of their mental potential, health, and social behaviour, as measured by increased intelligence (3, 4, 7), increased field independence (broader comprehension with improved ability to focus) (4), improved learning ability (8), improvement in reaction time measures that are correlated with intelligence (7), increased neurological efficiency (30), reduced need for outpatient or inpatient medical care and reduced health care costs among university staff (99), increased social maturity (3), and growth to uniquely high levels of self-development (100).
Students also expressed significantly higher satisfaction with their education in contrast to the national reference group of colleges and universities, as evaluated by the American College Testing Service. Findings included 21% more students at MUM than the norm responding that their college experience had definitely improved their quality of life; and 31% more MUM students than the norm responded that their university prepared them very well for their occupation.
Graduates of Maharishi University of Management have continued their education at over 130 graduate and professional schools, and are hired by leading corporations and institutions. They are notably successful as business entrepreneurs, and have won major professional awards. For example, in 1996 Christopher Hartnett was honoured by the major technology stock exchange (NASDAQ) and a leading national newspaper (USA Today) with the prestigious ‘Entrepreneur of the Year for Emerging Technologies’.
Maharishi University of Management graduate students have published research in academic journals and presented their research findings at state and national conferences. Students have also won major national and state awards, including National Science Foundation Fellowships and student research grants from the National Institutes of Health.
The achievements of the students at institutions using Consciousness-Based Education, together with the results of the hundreds of scientific research studies on the Transcendental Meditation Program, and educational experience of over four decades, indicate that any university or school in any nation implementing this approach to education will enjoy the progressive development of the students’ and teachers’ creative potential in an increasingly harmonious and vital learning environment.
Educational leaders in every country are invited to implement Consciousness-Based Education through the addition of one period per day to the existing curriculum of schools and universities, and thereby ensure the development of ideal citizens, and national life increasingly in harmony with Natural Law.
8. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH REFERENCES
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